Despite the recent identification of some novel risk genes for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the genetic etiology of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) remains largely unknown. The inclusion of these novel risk genes to the risk attributable to the APOE gene accounts for roughly half of the total genetic variance in LOAD. The evidence indicates that undiscovered genetic factors may contribute to AD susceptibility. In the present study, we sequenced the MC1R gene in 525 Spanish LOAD patients and in 160 controls. We observed that a common MC1R variant p.V92M (rs2228479), not related to pigmentation traits, was present in 72 (14%) patients and 15 (9%) controls and confers increased risk of developing LOAD (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.08-3.64, p = 0.026), especially in those patients whose genetic risk could not be explained by APOE genotype.
Tell-Marti G, Puig-Butille JA, Potrony M, Plana E, Badenas C, Antonell A, Sanchez-Valle R, Molinuevo JL, Lleó A, Alcolea D, Fortea J, Fernández-Santiago R, Clarimón J, Lladó A, Puig S. A Common Variant in the MC1R Gene (p.V92M) is associated with Alzheimer's Disease Risk. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;56(3):1065-1074. doi: 10.3233/JAD-161113. PMID: 28059796.
Oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis play crucial roles in secondary brain injury (SBI) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, Nle4-D-Phe7-<i>α</i>-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), a synthetic agonist of the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), has been proved to inhibit...
Oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis play crucial roles in secondary brain injury (SBI) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, Nle4-D-Phe7-α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH), a synthetic agonist of the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), has been proved to inhibit neuroinflammatory in several diseases. This study is aimed at exploring if NDP-MSH could reduce oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis following ICH, as well as the potential mechanism. A mouse ICH model was induced by autologous blood injection. NDP-MSH was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h after ICH. Mc1r siRNA and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 were administrated to inhibit the expression of Mc1r and phosphorylation of PI3K, respectively. Neurological test, brain water content, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis were utilized in this study. The results exhibited that Mc1r was mainly expressed in neurons, and its level in the ipsilateral hemisphere was significantly elevated after ICH. NDP-MSH treatment significantly attenuated the neurological deficits and brain water content 24 hours after ICH, which was accompanied by the inhibition of oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis. The administration of NDP-MSH after ICH significantly promoted the expression of Mc1r, p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-Nrf2, followed by an increase of Bcl-2 and reduction of cleaved caspase-3. Conversely, downregulating the expression of Mc1r and phosphorylation of PI3K aggravated the neurological deficits and brain edema at 24 hours after ICH, meanwhile, the effect of NDP-MSH on the expression of Mc1r, p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-Nrf2, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase 3 was also abolished. In conclusion, our data suggest that the activation of Mc1r by NDP-MSH ameliorates oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway after ICH in mice.